This glossary contains the 552 most frequent Esperanto words and morphemes (Groups 1 to 4 of the Baza Radikaro Oficiala, Aktoj de la Akademio II, 1968-1974). It also contains all words used in the Free Esperanto Course. It is estimated from word frequency studies that this corresponds to approximately 2000 words in other languages and covers 80 % of the words encountered.

The reader is assumed to be familiar with the rules of word formation in Esperanto; however, a few compound words which are likely to be difficult for the beginner (aliĝi, denove, tagmanĝo) are indicated separately.

Grammatical endings and affixes appear first, although most of them can be used as independent words (ulo: person; ebla: possible; etc.), as does the table of correlatives. The rest of the words appear alphabetically according to the root, so that "mon/o" appears before "mond/o", for example.

The letter following the slash indicates the grammatical nature of the root: /o for nominal, /a for adjectival, and /i for verbal. I have followed the grammatical categories in the Baza Radikaro Oficiala. A few roots and affixes are hybrid; in this case, both classes are indicated separately.

Words which appear in the Free Esperanto Course but are not among the 552 most frequent words are marked with an asterisk (*). A few correlatives also fall in this category.

This glossary may be freely copied and distributed.

Link to this page:

Yves Bellefeuille <yan @>

Grammatical endings, affixes, correlatives:
-a         adjective
-e         adverb
-j         plural
-n         accusative
-o         noun


-i         infinitive
-as        present
-is        past
-os        future
-us        conditional
-u         volitive (imperative, subjunctive)

              past           present        future

active          -int-          -ant-          -ont-
passive         -it-           -at-           -ot-


bo-        relation by marriage, "in-law"
           bopatrino:	mother-in-law; bofrato: brother-in-law
ĉef-       head, chief
           ĉefurbo: capital; ĉefministro: prime minister
dis-       separation, scattering
           disĵeti: to throw about; dissendi: to distribute
ek-        sudden or momentary action
           ekbrili: to flash; ekkrii: to shout out
ge-        both sexes together
           gepatroj: father and mother; gesinjoroj: ladies and gentlemen
mal-       opposite
           granda: big, malgranda: small; riĉa: rich, malriĉa: poor
re-        over again, back again
           resendi: to send back; rekonstrui: to rebuild

-adi       to do an action persistently or repeatedly
           kuradi: to keep on running; vizitadi: to visit habitually
-ado       frequent or continuous action
           kuirado: cooking; parolado: speech
-aĵo       thing, substance 
           novaĵo: news, novelty; manĝaĵo: food
-ano       member, inhabitant
           Usonano: American; Kristano: Christian
-aro       collection, group
           arbaro: forest; vortaro: dictionary
-ebla      possible
           videbla: visible; kredebla: credible
-eco       abstract quality
           boneco: goodness; amikeco: friendship
-eg-       great size, intense degree, augmentative
           domego: mansion; varmega: extremely hot
-ejo       place
           lernejo: school; vendejo: store
-ema       propensity, tendency
           parolema: talkative; ludema: playful
-estro     leader, chief
           lernejestro: school principal; urbestro: mayor
-et-       smallness, small degree, diminutive
           varmeta: lukewarm; libreto: booklet
-ido       child, descendent
           katido: kitten; reĝo: king, reĝido: prince
-igi       to make, to cause to become
           purigi: to clean; mortigi: to kill
-iĝi       to become
           naskiĝi: to be born; edziĝi: to marry (become a husband)
-ilo       tool, instrument
           tranĉilo: knife; ludilo: a toy
-inda      worthy of
           memorinda: memorable; vidinda: worth seeing
-ino       feminine
           patrino: mother; bovino: cow
-ismo      doctrine, system (as in English)
           komunismo: communism; kristanismo: Christianity
-isto      person connected with something (as in English)
           instruisto: teacher; komunisto: communist
-obla      multiple
           duobla: double; trioble: triply
-ona       fraction
           duona: half (of); centono: one hundredth
-ujo       container, country
           monujo: purse; Anglujo: England (now often "-io" in this sense)
-ulo       person possessing a quality or characteristic
           riĉulo: rich man; junulo: young person
-um-       indefinite suffix indicating some relation with the root
           kolumo: collar; malvarmumo: a cold; plenumi: to fulfill
(This is not a complete list of all official prefixes and suffixes, but only the most frequent.)

Table of Correlatives:


ONE KIU TIU IU NENIU ĉIU which one, that one someone, no-one, each one, who somebody nobody everybody

THING KIO TIO IO NENIO ĉIO what thing, that thing something nothing everything what

KIND KIA TIA IA NENIA ĉIA what kind of that kind of some kind of no kind of every kind of

PLACE KIE TIE IE NENIE ĉIE where there somewhere nowhere everywhere

WAY KIEL TIEL IEL* NENIEL* ĉIEL* how, thus, somehow, "nohow", in every way in what way in that way in some way in no way

REASON KIAL TIAL IAL* NENIAL* ĉIAL* why, for so, for for some for no for every what reason that reason reason reason reason

TIME KIAM TIAM IAM NENIAM ĉIAM when, at then, at at some time never, at always, what time that time no time every time

QUANTITY KIOM TIOM IOM NENIOM ĉIOM how much, that much, some none the whole how many that many (quantity) quantity, all

ONE'S KIES TIES* IES* NENIES* ĉIES* whose, that one's someone's no-one's, everyone's which one's nobody's everybody's



aĉet/i          to buy
adiaŭ*          good-bye
aer/o           air
afabl/a         kind, friendly
afer/o          matter, affair, thing
Afrik/o*        Africa
agrabl/a        pleasant, nice
aĝ/o            age
ajn             -ever (e.g. kiu ajn: whoever; iam ajn: whenever)
akcept/i        to accept
akr/a*          sharp
akv/o           water
al              to, towards (preposition)
al/iĝ/i*        to join (intrans.)
al/ven/i*       to arrive (intrans.)
ali/a		other
almenaŭ         at least (adverb)
alt/a           high, tall
am/i            to love, to like
amas/o          mass, crowd
ambaŭ           both
amik/o          friend
Angl/o*         Englishman
angul/o         corner, angle
ankaŭ           also, too (adverb)
ankoraŭ         still (adverb)
anstataŭ        instead of (preposition, conjunction)
antaŭ           before (preposition)
apart/a         separate
apenaŭ          barely, scarcely (adverb)
aper/i          to appear
apetit/o*       appetite
april/o*        april
apud            beside, near (preposition)
arb/o           tree
art/o           art
atend/i         to wait
atent/a         attentive, careful		
atest/i*        to attest, to certify		
aŭ              or, either... or... (conjunction)
aŭd/i           to hear
aŭgust/o*       august
aŭskult/i       to listen
aŭt/o*          automobile, car
aŭtobus/o*      bus, coach
aŭtun/o         autumn, fall
av/o            grandfather

baldaŭ          soon (adverb)
bat/i           to hit, to beat
batal/i         to fight
bel/a           lovely, beautiful
best/o          animal
bezon/i         to need, to require
bicikl/o*       bicycle
bier/o*         beer
bigami/o*       bigamy
bilard/o*       billiards, pool
bild/o          picture, image
bird/o          bird
blank/a         white
blind/a*        blind
blond/a*        blond
blu/a           blue
bon/a           good
bord/o          border, shore, bank
bov/o*          bull, ox
brak/o          arm
bril/i          to shine, to be bright
bru/i           to make a noise
brul/i          to burn, to be on fire (intrans.)
brun/a*         brown
Bruno*          Esperantized version of the name "Brown"
bub/o*          boy, lad (often pejorative)
bufed/o*        buffet, snack-bar
buŝ/o           mouth
butik/o*        store, shop
butik/um/i*     to go shopping

cel/i		to aim at
cent            (one) hundred
cert/a          sure, certain
ci*             thou (rare)
cigared/o*      cigarette

ĉambr/o         room
ĉapel/o         hat
ĉar             because, since (conjunction)
ĉas/i*          to hunt
ĉe              at, by (preposition)
ĉeval/o         horse
ĉi              indicates proximity (e.g. tio: that; tio ĉi: this; tie: there; tie ĉi: here)
ĉiel/o          heaven, sky
ĉirkaŭ          around, approximately (adverb)
ĉokolad/o*      chocolate
ĉu              whether (interrogative particle)

da              of (follows quantity or measure) (preposition)
Dalas/o*        Dallas
danc/i*         to dance
dank/i          to thank
daŭr/i          to last, to continue, to go on
de              of, from (preposition)
de/nov/e*       again, once more
decembr/o*      december
dek             ten
dekstr/a        right (side)
demand/i        to ask (a question)
dens/a*         dense, thick
dent/o          tooth
dev/i           to have to, to must
dezir/i         to wish, to desire
di/o            god
dik/a           thick, fat
dimanĉ/o*       sunday
dir/i           to say
direkt/o        direction
disk/o*         disk, record
divers/a        varied
do              therefore, so, then (conjunction)
dolĉ/a          sweet
dolor/o         pain
dom/o           house, building
don/i           to give
dorm/i          to sleep
du              two
dub/i           to doubt (trans.)
dum             while (conjunction), during (preposition)

eĉ              even (adverb)
edz/o           husband
eĥ/o*           echo
ekster          outside, out of (preposition)
ekzempl/o       example
ekzerc/i*       to exercise, to practice
el   		out of, from (preposition)
elekt/i         to choose, to elect
en              in, into (with accusative) (preposition)
erar/i          to err, to make a mistake
eskim/o*        Eskimo, Inuit
esper/i         to hope
esperant/o*     esperanto
est/i           to be
Eŭklid/o*       Euclid
Eŭrop/o*        Europe

facil/a         easy
fajr/o          fire
fal/i           to fall
famili/o        family
far/i           to do, to make
fart/i*         to fare, to feel ("Kiel vi fartas?": "How are you?")
februar/o*      february
feliĉ/a         happy
fenestr/o       window
fer/o           iron
ferm/i          to close
fest/i          to celebrate
fil/o           son
fin/i           to finish, to end (something) (trans.)
fingr/o         finger
fiŝ/o           fish
flank/o         side
flav/a*         yellow
flor/o          flower
flug/i          to fly
foj/o           time, occasion
for             far, away (adverb)
forges/i        to forget
form/o          form
fort/a          strong
frap/i          to hit, to strike
frat/o          brother
fraŭl/o         bachelor (fraŭlino: unmarried woman, "Miss")
fremd/a         foreign, alien
fru/a           early
frukt/o         fruit
fum/o*          smoke

gaj/a           happy, cheerful
gajn/i          to win, to acquire
gazet/o         magazine
geografi/o*     geography
glaci/o*        ice
glas/o          (drinking) glass
glob/o*         globe, sphere
gol/o*          goal (scored)
grand/a         large, great
grav/a          important
griz/a*         gray
gust/o*         taste
gust/um/i*      to taste (something) (trans.)

ĝangal/o*       jungle
ĝarden/o        garden
ĝi              it
ĝis             till, until, as far as (preposition, conjunction)
ĝoj/i           to be glad, to rejoice
ĝust/a          correct, exact

ha!             ah! (interjection)
halt/i          to stop (intrans.)
har/o           (one) hair
hav/i           to have
hejm/o          home
hel/a           bright, clear
help/i          to help
herb/o*         grass
hieraŭ          yesterday
histori/o       history
ho!             o!, oh! (interjection)
hodiaŭ          today
hom/o           person
hor/o           hour, time of day
hund/o          dog

ĥor/o*          choir, chorus

ide/o           idea
ili             they
imag/i*         to imagine
indian/o*       (American) Indian
infan/o         child
insekt/o*       insect
instru/i*       to teach 
inter           between, among (preposition)
interes/o       interest
interes/i       to interest, to be interesting to (trans.)
intern/a        internal, inside
ir/i            to go

ja              indeed (emphatic particle)
jaĥt/o*         yacht
jam             already (adverb)
januar/o*       january
jar/o           year
je              as regards, in relation to (indefinite preposition)
jen             here is (are), look!; sometimes... sometimes..., now... now...
jes             yes
Johan/o*        John
juli/o*         july
jun/a           young
juni/o*         june
just/a          just, fair

ĵaluz/a*        jealous
ĵaŭd/o*         thursday
ĵet/i           to throw
ĵurnal/o*       newspaper
ĵus             just, just now (adverb)

kaf/o*          coffee
kaj             and (conjunction)
Kalgari/o*      Calgary
kalkul/i        to calculate, to count
kamp/o          field, area
kanjon/o*       canyon
kant/i          to sing
kap/o           head
kapt/i          to catch
kar/a           dear
kaŝ/i           to hide (trans.)
kat/o           cat
kaŭz/o          cause
ke              that (conjunction)
kelk/a          some
klar/a          clear
klin/i*         to incline, to bend (trans.)
klub/o*         club, group
knab/o          boy
kol/o           neck
kolekt/i        to collect (trans.)
koler/i         to be angry
kolor/o         color
komenc/i        to begin (something) (trans.)
komerc/i        to trade, to do business
kompren/i       to understand
komun/a         common, general
kon/i           to know
konduk/i        to lead
kongres/o*      congress, convention
konsent/i       to agree
konsil/i        to advise
konstru/i       to build
kontent/a       satisfied, content
kontraŭ         against, opposite (preposition)
kor/o           heart
korespond/i*    to correspond, to exchange letters
korp/o          body
kort/o          yard, courtyard
kost/i          to cost
kovert/o*       envelope
kovr/i          to cover
kred/i          to believe
kresk/i         to grow (intrans.)
kri/i           to yell, to cry out
krom            besides, except (preposition)
ktp*            "kaj tiel plu" ("and so on") (abbr.)
kuir/i          to cook
kuk/o*          cake
kun             with (preposition)
kunikl/o*       rabbit
kur/i           to run
kuraĝ/a         brave, courageous
kurs/o*         course, series of lessons
kuŝ/i           to lie down
kutim/o         custom, habit
kvankam         although (conjunction)
kvar            four
kvazaŭ          as if, as though (conjunction, adverb)
kvin            five

la              the (definite article)
labor/i         to work
lac/a           tired
lakt/o          milk
land/o          country, land
larĝ/a          wide
las/i           to leave, to allow
last/a          last
laŭ             according to, along (preposition)
lav/i           to wash (trans.)
lecion/o*       lesson
leg/i           to read
lern/i          to learn
leter/o         letter (correspondence)
lev/i           to lift
li              he
liber/a         free, independent
libr/o          book
lig/o           league, alliance
lig/i           to tie, to bind
lign/o          wood
limonad/o*      lemonade, soft drink (Europe)
lingv/o         language
lini/o          line
lit/o           bed
loĝ/i           to live, to inhabit
lok/o           place, position
London/o*       London
long/a          long
lud/i           to play
lum/i           to shine, to give light
lund/o*         monday

maj/o*          may (month)
man/o           hand
manĝ/i          to eat
mank/i          to be lacking, to be absent
mar/o           sea, ocean
mard/o*         tuesday
mark/o          sign, mark
mart/o*         march (month)
maten/o         morning
maten/manĝ/o*   breakfast
mejl/o*         mile
mem             -self, -selves
membr/o*        member
memor/i         to remember
merkred/o*      wednesday
met/i           to put, to place
mez/o           middle
mezur/i         to measure (something) (trans.)
mi              I, me
mil             (one) thousand
milion/o*       million
milit/i         to wage war
minut/o         minute
mir/i           to marvel, to be amazed
moment/o        moment
mon/o           money
monat/o         month
mond/o          world
mont/o          mountain
montr/i         to show
morgaŭ          tomorrow
mort/i          to die (intrans.)
mov/i           to move (something) (trans.)
mult/a          much, a lot of
mur/o           wall

naci/o          nation
naĝ/i*          to swim
nask/i          to give birth (to) (trans.)
natur/o         nature
naŭ             nine
naz/o           nose
ne              no, not
neces/a         necessary
neĝ/o           snow
nek             nor, neither... nor... (conjunction)
neŭtral/a*      neutral, impartial
ni              we, us
nigr/a          black
nokt/o          night
nom/o           name
nombr/o         number, amount
nord/a*         north
nov/a           new
Nov-Jork/o*     New York
novembr/o*      november
nu              well!, now! (interjection)
nub/o           cloud
nul             zero
nul/o*          nil, name of the number zero
nun             now
nur             only (adverb)

oft/a           frequent, common
ok              eight
okaz/i          to happen, to occur
oktobr/o*       October
okul/o          eye
okup/i          to occupy
ol              than (in comparisions) (conjunction)
ond/o*          wave
oni             one, people, "they" (indefinite pronoun)
onkl/o          uncle
opini/i         to think, to have an opinion
ord/o           order
ordon/i         to order, to command
orel/o          ear
ost/o*          bone
ov/o*           egg

pac/o           peace
paf/i*          to shoot
pag/i           to pay
pan/o           bread
pantofl/o*      slipper
paper/o         paper
pardon/i        to forgive, to excuse
Pariz/o*        Paris
parol/i         to speak
part/o          part
pas/i           to pass
paŝ/i           to step, to pace
patr/o          father
pec/o           piece, bit
pen/i           to try, to endeavour
pens/i          to think
per             by (means of), with (preposition)
perd/i          to lose
permes/i        to allow, to permit
person/o        person
pet/i           to ask (for), to request
pied/o          foot
pilk/o*         ball (for playing)
plaĉ/i*         to please, to be pleasing
plaĝ/o*         beach
plank/o         floor
plej            most (superlative) (adverb)
plen/a          full
plend/i         to complain
plezur/o        pleasure, enjoyment
pli             more (comparative) (adverb)
plor/i          to cry, to weep
plu             further, more (adverb)
plum/o          pen
pluv/o          rain
polus/o*        pole (as in North Pole)
popol/o         people, nation
por             for, in order to (preposition)
pord/o          door
port/i          to carry
post            after, behind (preposition)
postul/i        to demand, to require
poŝ/o*          pocket
pov/i           to be able (to)
prav/a          right, correct
precip/a        main, principal
prem/i          to press, to squeeze
pren/i          to take
preskaŭ         almost (adverb)
pret/a          ready
preter          beyond, past (preposition)
prezent/i       to present
pri             about, concerning (preposition)
printemp/o      spring
pro             because of, by reason of (preposition)
problem/o*      problem
profund/a       deep
proksim/a       near, close
promen/i*       to take a walk
propr/a         (one's) own
prosper/i*      to prosper
prov/i          to try, to test
pun/i*          to punish
punkt/o         point, period
pur/a           clean, pure

rajt/o          a right
rakont/i        to tell, to narrate
rapid/a         quick, fast
reg/i           to rule, to control
renkont/i       to meet
respond/i       to answer
rest/i          to remain, to continue to be
rest/o          rest, remainder
ricev/i         to receive
riĉ/a           rich
rid/i           to laugh
rigard/i        to look (at)
rimark/i        to notice
rimed/o         means, resource
ripoz/i         to rest
river/o         river
rob/o*          a dress
romp/i          to break (trans.)
rond/o          round, circle
roz/o           rose
ruĝ/a           red

sabat/o*        saturday
sabl/o*         sand
sag/o*          arrow
salt/i          to jump
salut/i         to greet
sam/a           same
san/a           healthy
San-Francisk/o* San Francisco
sandviĉ/o*      sandwich
sang/o          blood
sat/a           full, not hungry
sci/i           to know
se              if (conjunction)
sed             but (conjunction)
seĝ/o           chair
sek/a*          dry
sekv/i          to follow
semajn/o        week
sen             without (preposition)
send/i          to send
sent/i          to feel (trans.)
sep             seven
septembr/o*     september
serĉ/i          to look for, to seek
serv/i          to serve
ses             six
si              (him)self, (her)self, (one)self (reflexive pronoun)
sid/i           to sit
silent/i        to be silent
simpl/a         simple
sinjor/o        mister, gentleman
skatol/o*       box, case
skrib/i         to write
soif/i*         to be thirsty
sol/a           alone
solv/i*         to solve (trans.)
somer/o         summer
son/i           to sound
spec/o          kind, sort
staci/o         station (for bus, train, etc.)
star/i          to stand
stat/o          state, condition
step/o*         steppe
strat/o         street
stud/i*         to study 
sub             under, beneath (preposition)
sufer/i         to suffer
sufiĉ/a         sufficient, enough
sukces/i*       to succeed
suker/o         sugar
sun/o           sun
super           over, above (preposition)
supr/o          top, summit
sur             on, upon (preposition)

ŝaf/o*          sheep
ŝajn/i          to seem, to appear to be
ŝanĝ/i          to change (trans.)
ŝat/i*          to have a high opinion of, to value, to like
ŝi              she
ŝip/o           ship
ŝose/o*         road, roadway
ŝton/o          stone
ŝu/o*           shoe

tabl/o          table
tabl/o/tenis/o* table tennis, ping-pong
tag/o           day
tag/manĝ/o*     lunch
tajp/i*         to type
tamen           however, nevertheless (adverb, conjunction)
tamtam/o*       tom-tom
tas/o*          cup
task/o*         task
te/o*           tea
teatr/o*        a theater
Teksas/o*       Texas
temp/o          time
ten/i           to hold, to have
tenis/o*        tennis
ter/o           earth, ground
tim/i           to fear
tip/o*          type, sort
tir/i           to pull
tra             through (preposition)
traf/i*         to hit (a goal, etc.), to strike
tranĉ/i         to cut
trankvil/a      calm, quiet
trans           across, on the other side of (preposition)
tre             very
tri             three
trink/i         to drink
tro             too, too much
trov/i*         to find
tuj             immediately
turn/i          to turn (trans.)
tuŝ/i           to touch
tut/a           whole, entire

unu             one
urb/o           city, town
Uson/o*         USA
util/a          useful
uz/i            to use

vagon/o         train waggon, carriage
valiz/o*        suitcase, luggage
valor/o         value
varb/i*         to recruit
varm/a          warm, hot
vast/a*         vast, huge
vek/i           to awake (someone) (trans.)
ven/i           to come
vend/i          to sell (trans.)
vendred/o*      friday
vent/o          wind
ver/a           true, real
verd/a          green
vesper/o        evening
vest/o          garment, article of clothing
veter/o         weather
vetur/i         to travel (by vehicle: to drive, to fly, etc.)
vi              you
vid/i           to see
vilaĝ/o         village
vin/o*          wine
vintr/o         winter
vir/o           man
vitr/o          glass (substance)
viv/i           to live, to be alive
vizaĝ/o         face
vizit/i*        to visit
voj/o           way, road
vojaĝ/i         to travel, to journey 
vok/i           to call (trans)
vol/i           to want to
vort/o          word

zorg/i          to care for, to take care of

Xavier Godivier