This glossary contains the 552 most frequent Esperanto words and morphemes (Groups 1 to 4 of the Baza Radikaro Oficiala, Aktoj de la Akademio II, 1968-1974). It also contains all words used in the Free Esperanto Course. It is estimated from word frequency studies that this corresponds to approximately 2000 words in other languages and covers 80 % of the words encountered.
The reader is assumed to be familiar with the rules of word formation in Esperanto; however, a few compound words which are likely to be difficult for the beginner (aligxi, denove, tagmangxo) are indicated separately.
Grammatical endings and affixes appear first, although most of them can be used as independent words (ulo: person; ebla: possible; etc.), as does the table of correlatives. The rest of the words appear alphabetically according to the root, so that "mon/o" appears before "mond/o", for example.
The letter following the slash indicates the grammatical nature of the root: /o for nominal, /a for adjectival, and /i for verbal. I have followed the grammatical categories in the Baza Radikaro Oficiala. A few roots and affixes are hybrid; in this case, both classes are indicated separately.
Words which appear in the Free Esperanto Course but are not among the 552 most frequent words are marked with an asterisk (*). A few correlatives also fall in this category.
This glossary may be freely copied and distributed.
Link to this page: http://purl.org/net/panorama/angla/vortaro.htm
Yves Bellefeuille <yan @ storm.ca>
Grammatical endings, affixes, correlatives:-a adjective -e adverb -j plural -n accusative -o noun Verbs: -i infinitive -as present -is past -os future -us conditional -u volitive (imperative, subjunctive) Participles: past present future active -int- -ant- -ont- passive -it- -at- -ot- Prefixes: bo- relation by marriage, "in-law" bopatrino: mother-in-law; bofrato: brother-in-law cxef- head, chief cxefurbo: capital; cxefministro: prime minister dis- separation, scattering disjxeti: to throw about; dissendi: to distribute ek- sudden or momentary action ekbrili: to flash; ekkrii: to shout out ge- both sexes together gepatroj: father and mother; gesinjoroj: ladies and gentlemen mal- opposite granda: big, malgranda: small; ricxa: rich, malricxa: poor re- over again, back again resendi: to send back; rekonstrui: to rebuild Suffixes: -adi to do an action persistently or repeatedly kuradi: to keep on running; vizitadi: to visit habitually -ado frequent or continuous action kuirado: cooking; parolado: speech -ajxo thing, substance novajxo: news, novelty; mangxajxo: food -ano member, inhabitant Usonano: American; Kristano: Christian -aro collection, group arbaro: forest; vortaro: dictionary -ebla possible videbla: visible; kredebla: credible -eco abstract quality boneco: goodness; amikeco: friendship -eg- great size, intense degree, augmentative domego: mansion; varmega: extremely hot -ejo place lernejo: school; vendejo: store -ema propensity, tendency parolema: talkative; ludema: playful -estro leader, chief lernejestro: school principal; urbestro: mayor -et- smallness, small degree, diminutive varmeta: lukewarm; libreto: booklet -ido child, descendent katido: kitten; regxo: king, regxido: prince -igi to make, to cause to become purigi: to clean; mortigi: to kill -igxi to become naskigxi: to be born; edzigxi: to marry (become a husband) -ilo tool, instrument trancxilo: knife; ludilo: a toy -inda worthy of memorinda: memorable; vidinda: worth seeing -ino feminine patrino: mother; bovino: cow -ismo doctrine, system (as in English) komunismo: communism; kristanismo: Christianity -isto person connected with something (as in English) instruisto: teacher; komunisto: communist -obla multiple duobla: double; trioble: triply -ona fraction duona: half (of); centono: one hundredth -ujo container, country monujo: purse; Anglujo: England (now often "-io" in this sense) -ulo person possessing a quality or characteristic ricxulo: rich man; junulo: young person -um- indefinite suffix indicating some relation with the root kolumo: collar; malvarmumo: a cold; plenumi: to fulfill (This is not a complete list of all official prefixes and suffixes, but only the most frequent.)
Table of Correlatives:
WHICH, THAT SOME NO EACH, WHAT EVERY
ONE KIU TIU IU NENIU CXIU which one, that one someone, no-one, each one, who somebody nobody everybody
THING KIO TIO IO NENIO CXIO what thing, that thing something nothing everything what
KIND KIA TIA IA NENIA CXIA what kind of that kind of some kind of no kind of every kind of
PLACE KIE TIE IE NENIE CXIE where there somewhere nowhere everywhere
WAY KIEL TIEL IEL* NENIEL* CXIEL* how, thus, somehow, "nohow", in every way in what way in that way in some way in no way
REASON KIAL TIAL IAL* NENIAL* CXIAL* why, for so, for for some for no for every what reason that reason reason reason reason
TIME KIAM TIAM IAM NENIAM CXIAM when, at then, at at some time never, at always, what time that time no time every time
QUANTITY KIOM TIOM IOM NENIOM CXIOM how much, that much, some none the whole how many that many (quantity) quantity, all
ONE'S KIES TIES* IES* NENIES* CXIES* whose, that one's someone's no-one's, everyone's which one's nobody's everybody's
acxet/i to buy adiaux* good-bye aer/o air afabl/a kind, friendly afer/o matter, affair, thing Afrik/o* Africa agrabl/a pleasant, nice agx/o age ajn -ever (e.g. kiu ajn: whoever; iam ajn: whenever) akcept/i to accept akr/a* sharp akv/o water al to, towards (preposition) al/igx/i* to join (intrans.) al/ven/i* to arrive (intrans.) ali/a other almenaux at least (adverb) alt/a high, tall am/i to love, to like amas/o mass, crowd ambaux both amik/o friend Angl/o* Englishman angul/o corner, angle ankaux also, too (adverb) ankoraux still (adverb) anstataux instead of (preposition, conjunction) antaux before (preposition) apart/a separate apenaux barely, scarcely (adverb) aper/i to appear apetit/o* appetite april/o* april apud beside, near (preposition) arb/o tree art/o art atend/i to wait atent/a attentive, careful atest/i* to attest, to certify aux or, either... or... (conjunction) auxd/i to hear auxgust/o* august auxskult/i to listen auxt/o* automobile, car auxtobus/o* bus, coach auxtun/o autumn, fall av/o grandfather
baldaux soon (adverb) bat/i to hit, to beat batal/i to fight bel/a lovely, beautiful best/o animal bezon/i to need, to require bicikl/o* bicycle bier/o* beer bigami/o* bigamy bilard/o* billiards, pool bild/o picture, image bird/o bird blank/a white blind/a* blind blond/a* blond blu/a blue bon/a good bord/o border, shore, bank bov/o* bull, ox brak/o arm bril/i to shine, to be bright bru/i to make a noise brul/i to burn, to be on fire (intrans.) brun/a* brown Bruno* Esperantized version of the name "Brown" bub/o* boy, lad (often pejorative) bufed/o* buffet, snack-bar busx/o mouth butik/o* store, shop butik/um/i* to go shopping
cel/i to aim at cent (one) hundred cert/a sure, certain ci* thou (rare) cigared/o* cigarette
cxambr/o room cxapel/o hat cxar because, since (conjunction) cxas/i* to hunt cxe at, by (preposition) cxeval/o horse cxi indicates proximity (e.g. tio: that; tio cxi: this; tie: there; tie cxi: here) cxiel/o heaven, sky cxirkaux around, approximately (adverb) cxokolad/o* chocolate cxu whether (interrogative particle)
da of (follows quantity or measure) (preposition) Dalas/o* Dallas danc/i* to dance dank/i to thank dauxr/i to last, to continue, to go on de of, from (preposition) de/nov/e* again, once more decembr/o* december dek ten dekstr/a right (side) demand/i to ask (a question) dens/a* dense, thick dent/o tooth dev/i to have to, to must dezir/i to wish, to desire di/o god dik/a thick, fat dimancx/o* sunday dir/i to say direkt/o direction disk/o* disk, record divers/a varied do therefore, so, then (conjunction) dolcx/a sweet dolor/o pain dom/o house, building don/i to give dorm/i to sleep du two dub/i to doubt (trans.) dum while (conjunction), during (preposition)
ecx even (adverb) edz/o husband ehx/o* echo ekster outside, out of (preposition) ekzempl/o example ekzerc/i* to exercise, to practice el out of, from (preposition) elekt/i to choose, to elect en in, into (with accusative) (preposition) erar/i to err, to make a mistake eskim/o* Eskimo, Inuit esper/i to hope esperant/o* esperanto est/i to be Euxklid/o* Euclid Euxrop/o* Europe
facil/a easy fajr/o fire fal/i to fall famili/o family far/i to do, to make fart/i* to fare, to feel ("Kiel vi fartas?": "How are you?") februar/o* february felicx/a happy fenestr/o window fer/o iron ferm/i to close fest/i to celebrate fil/o son fin/i to finish, to end (something) (trans.) fingr/o finger fisx/o fish flank/o side flav/a* yellow flor/o flower flug/i to fly foj/o time, occasion for far, away (adverb) forges/i to forget form/o form fort/a strong frap/i to hit, to strike frat/o brother frauxl/o bachelor (frauxlino: unmarried woman, "Miss") fremd/a foreign, alien fru/a early frukt/o fruit fum/o* smoke
gaj/a happy, cheerful gajn/i to win, to acquire gazet/o magazine geografi/o* geography glaci/o* ice glas/o (drinking) glass glob/o* globe, sphere gol/o* goal (scored) grand/a large, great grav/a important griz/a* gray gust/o* taste gust/um/i* to taste (something) (trans.)
gxangal/o* jungle gxarden/o garden gxi it gxis till, until, as far as (preposition, conjunction) gxoj/i to be glad, to rejoice gxust/a correct, exact
ha! ah! (interjection) halt/i to stop (intrans.) har/o (one) hair hav/i to have hejm/o home hel/a bright, clear help/i to help herb/o* grass hieraux yesterday histori/o history ho! o!, oh! (interjection) hodiaux today hom/o person hor/o hour, time of day hund/o dog
hxor/o* choir, chorus
ide/o idea ili they imag/i* to imagine indian/o* (American) Indian infan/o child insekt/o* insect instru/i* to teach inter between, among (preposition) interes/o interest interes/i to interest, to be interesting to (trans.) intern/a internal, inside ir/i to go
ja indeed (emphatic particle) jahxt/o* yacht jam already (adverb) januar/o* january jar/o year je as regards, in relation to (indefinite preposition) jen here is (are), look!; sometimes... sometimes..., now... now... jes yes Johan/o* John juli/o* july jun/a young juni/o* june just/a just, fair
jxaluz/a* jealous jxauxd/o* thursday jxet/i to throw jxurnal/o* newspaper jxus just, just now (adverb)
kaf/o* coffee kaj and (conjunction) Kalgari/o* Calgary kalkul/i to calculate, to count kamp/o field, area kanjon/o* canyon kant/i to sing kap/o head kapt/i to catch kar/a dear kasx/i to hide (trans.) kat/o cat kauxz/o cause ke that (conjunction) kelk/a some klar/a clear klin/i* to incline, to bend (trans.) klub/o* club, group knab/o boy kol/o neck kolekt/i to collect (trans.) koler/i to be angry kolor/o color komenc/i to begin (something) (trans.) komerc/i to trade, to do business kompren/i to understand komun/a common, general kon/i to know konduk/i to lead kongres/o* congress, convention konsent/i to agree konsil/i to advise konstru/i to build kontent/a satisfied, content kontraux against, opposite (preposition) kor/o heart korespond/i* to correspond, to exchange letters korp/o body kort/o yard, courtyard kost/i to cost kovert/o* envelope kovr/i to cover kred/i to believe kresk/i to grow (intrans.) kri/i to yell, to cry out krom besides, except (preposition) ktp* "kaj tiel plu" ("and so on") (abbr.) kuir/i to cook kuk/o* cake kun with (preposition) kunikl/o* rabbit kur/i to run kuragx/a brave, courageous kurs/o* course, series of lessons kusx/i to lie down kutim/o custom, habit kvankam although (conjunction) kvar four kvazaux as if, as though (conjunction, adverb) kvin five
la the (definite article) labor/i to work lac/a tired lakt/o milk land/o country, land largx/a wide las/i to leave, to allow last/a last laux according to, along (preposition) lav/i to wash (trans.) lecion/o* lesson leg/i to read lern/i to learn leter/o letter (correspondence) lev/i to lift li he liber/a free, independent libr/o book lig/o league, alliance lig/i to tie, to bind lign/o wood limonad/o* lemonade, soft drink (Europe) lingv/o language lini/o line lit/o bed logx/i to live, to inhabit lok/o place, position London/o* London long/a long lud/i to play lum/i to shine, to give light lund/o* monday
maj/o* may (month) man/o hand mangx/i to eat mank/i to be lacking, to be absent mar/o sea, ocean mard/o* tuesday mark/o sign, mark mart/o* march (month) maten/o morning maten/mangx/o* breakfast mejl/o* mile mem -self, -selves membr/o* member memor/i to remember merkred/o* wednesday met/i to put, to place mez/o middle mezur/i to measure (something) (trans.) mi I, me mil (one) thousand milion/o* million milit/i to wage war minut/o minute mir/i to marvel, to be amazed moment/o moment mon/o money monat/o month mond/o world mont/o mountain montr/i to show morgaux tomorrow mort/i to die (intrans.) mov/i to move (something) (trans.) mult/a much, a lot of mur/o wall
naci/o nation nagx/i* to swim nask/i to give birth (to) (trans.) natur/o nature naux nine naz/o nose ne no, not neces/a necessary negx/o snow nek nor, neither... nor... (conjunction) neuxtral/a* neutral, impartial ni we, us nigr/a black nokt/o night nom/o name nombr/o number, amount nord/a* north nov/a new Nov-Jork/o* New York novembr/o* november nu well!, now! (interjection) nub/o cloud nul zero nul/o* nil, name of the number zero nun now nur only (adverb)
oft/a frequent, common ok eight okaz/i to happen, to occur oktobr/o* October okul/o eye okup/i to occupy ol than (in comparisions) (conjunction) ond/o* wave oni one, people, "they" (indefinite pronoun) onkl/o uncle opini/i to think, to have an opinion ord/o order ordon/i to order, to command orel/o ear ost/o* bone ov/o* egg
pac/o peace paf/i* to shoot pag/i to pay pan/o bread pantofl/o* slipper paper/o paper pardon/i to forgive, to excuse Pariz/o* Paris parol/i to speak part/o part pas/i to pass pasx/i to step, to pace patr/o father pec/o piece, bit pen/i to try, to endeavour pens/i to think per by (means of), with (preposition) perd/i to lose permes/i to allow, to permit person/o person pet/i to ask (for), to request pied/o foot pilk/o* ball (for playing) placx/i* to please, to be pleasing plagx/o* beach plank/o floor plej most (superlative) (adverb) plen/a full plend/i to complain plezur/o pleasure, enjoyment pli more (comparative) (adverb) plor/i to cry, to weep plu further, more (adverb) plum/o pen pluv/o rain polus/o* pole (as in North Pole) popol/o people, nation por for, in order to (preposition) pord/o door port/i to carry post after, behind (preposition) postul/i to demand, to require posx/o* pocket pov/i to be able (to) prav/a right, correct precip/a main, principal prem/i to press, to squeeze pren/i to take preskaux almost (adverb) pret/a ready preter beyond, past (preposition) prezent/i to present pri about, concerning (preposition) printemp/o spring pro because of, by reason of (preposition) problem/o* problem profund/a deep proksim/a near, close promen/i* to take a walk propr/a (one's) own prosper/i* to prosper prov/i to try, to test pun/i* to punish punkt/o point, period pur/a clean, pure
rajt/o a right rakont/i to tell, to narrate rapid/a quick, fast reg/i to rule, to control renkont/i to meet respond/i to answer rest/i to remain, to continue to be rest/o rest, remainder ricev/i to receive ricx/a rich rid/i to laugh rigard/i to look (at) rimark/i to notice rimed/o means, resource ripoz/i to rest river/o river rob/o* a dress romp/i to break (trans.) rond/o round, circle roz/o rose rugx/a red
sabat/o* saturday sabl/o* sand sag/o* arrow salt/i to jump salut/i to greet sam/a same san/a healthy San-Francisk/o* San Francisco sandvicx/o* sandwich sang/o blood sat/a full, not hungry sci/i to know se if (conjunction) sed but (conjunction) segx/o chair sek/a* dry sekv/i to follow semajn/o week sen without (preposition) send/i to send sent/i to feel (trans.) sep seven septembr/o* september sercx/i to look for, to seek serv/i to serve ses six si (him)self, (her)self, (one)self (reflexive pronoun) sid/i to sit silent/i to be silent simpl/a simple sinjor/o mister, gentleman skatol/o* box, case skrib/i to write soif/i* to be thirsty sol/a alone solv/i* to solve (trans.) somer/o summer son/i to sound spec/o kind, sort staci/o station (for bus, train, etc.) star/i to stand stat/o state, condition step/o* steppe strat/o street stud/i* to study sub under, beneath (preposition) sufer/i to suffer suficx/a sufficient, enough sukces/i* to succeed suker/o sugar sun/o sun super over, above (preposition) supr/o top, summit sur on, upon (preposition)
sxaf/o* sheep sxajn/i to seem, to appear to be sxangx/i to change (trans.) sxat/i* to have a high opinion of, to value, to like sxi she sxip/o ship sxose/o* road, roadway sxton/o stone sxu/o* shoe
tabl/o table tabl/o/tenis/o* table tennis, ping-pong tag/o day tag/mangx/o* lunch tajp/i* to type tamen however, nevertheless (adverb, conjunction) tamtam/o* tom-tom tas/o* cup task/o* task te/o* tea teatr/o* a theater Teksas/o* Texas temp/o time ten/i to hold, to have tenis/o* tennis ter/o earth, ground tim/i to fear tip/o* type, sort tir/i to pull tra through (preposition) traf/i* to hit (a goal, etc.), to strike trancx/i to cut trankvil/a calm, quiet trans across, on the other side of (preposition) tre very tri three trink/i to drink tro too, too much trov/i* to find tuj immediately turn/i to turn (trans.) tusx/i to touch tut/a whole, entire
unu one urb/o city, town Uson/o* USA util/a useful uz/i to use
vagon/o train waggon, carriage valiz/o* suitcase, luggage valor/o value varb/i* to recruit varm/a warm, hot vast/a* vast, huge vek/i to awake (someone) (trans.) ven/i to come vend/i to sell (trans.) vendred/o* friday vent/o wind ver/a true, real verd/a green vesper/o evening vest/o garment, article of clothing veter/o weather vetur/i to travel (by vehicle: to drive, to fly, etc.) vi you vid/i to see vilagx/o village vin/o* wine vintr/o winter vir/o man vitr/o glass (substance) viv/i to live, to be alive vizagx/o face vizit/i* to visit voj/o way, road vojagx/i to travel, to journey vok/i to call (trans) vol/i to want to vort/o word
zorg/i to care for, to take care of